Category Archives: Brain

Lewy Body Dementia – LBD

Lewy Body DementiaLewy Body Dementia-LBD is not a rare disease. It affects an estimated 1.4 million people and their families in the United States. It’s currently underdiagnosed, because Lewy Body Dementia-LBD symptoms can strongly resemble other commonly known diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Other medical professionals or many doctors still are unfamiliar with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD.
The earliest symptoms of these two diseases differ, but represent precisely the same underlying biological changes in the brain. Over time, people with both diagnoses will grow sleep, physical, quite similar cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.
While it may take a lot more than a year or two for symptoms that are enough to develop to get a health care provider to diagnose Lewy Body Dementia-LBD, it is critical to pursue a proper analysis. Early analysis allows for important early treatment that could extend standard of living and independence.
Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is a multisystem disease and usually requires an extensive treatment approach. This approach demands a team of doctors from different specialties who collaborate to provide optimum treatment of each symptom. Lots of people with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD love significant development of the symptoms with a comprehensive approach to treatment, plus some can have remarkably little change from year to year.
Some people with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD are extremely sensitive or may respond negatively to certain medicines used to treat Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s in addition to specific over the counter medications.

Are you sure between Lewy Body Dementia-LBD or Something Else?
Accurate and early identification of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD, while not always simple to do, is of essential significance for two reasons.

– First, folks with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD may react more positively to particular dementia drugs than people with Alzheimer’s, allowing for early treatment that expand or may enhance the quality of life for both man with their caregiver as well as Lewy Body Dementia-LBD.

– Secondly, many people with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD respond more poorly to certain drugs for behavior and movement than individuals with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, occasionally with long-term or dangerous unwanted side effects.

By learning about common types of dementia, you can help your physician most quickly identify what type of dementia has grown.

Common Types of Dementia
Alzheimer’s disease symptoms comprise a progressive decline of recent memory; issues with language, computation, abstract thinking, and judgment; depression or stress; personality and behavioral changes; and disorientation to place and time.
Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is an umbrella term for a type of dementia that’s three common presentations.
Symptoms that differentiate it from Alzheimer’s comprise unpredictable amounts of cognitive ability, attention or alertness, changes in walking or move, visual hallucinations, a sleep disorder called REM sleep behavior disorder, where people physically act out their dreams, and acute sensitivity to medicines for hallucinations. By decades, the sleep disorder can precede the dementia along with other symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD sometimes.

– Others will start out using a movement disorder leading to the identification of Parkinson’s disease and later develop dementia as well as other symptoms common.

– Lastly, a tiny group will present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, which may include behavioral problems, hallucinations, and difficulty with mental actions that are complicated, leading to a preliminary diagnosis of DLB.

Aside from the original symptom, over time all three presentations of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD will grow sleep, physical, cognitive and behavioral attributes that were quite similar, all brought on by the existence of Lewy bodies throughout the brain.
A string of small strokes that deprive the brain of vital oxygen causes vascular dementia. Symptoms, including problem following instructions; incontinence; laughing or crying inappropriately; disorientation in familiar locations; walking with quick, shuffling steps; and difficulties handling cash may appear suddenly and worsen with strokes that are additional. Cigarette smoking high blood pressure, and high cholesterol are a number of the risk factors for stroke that will be commanded to prevent vascular dementia.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) contains several disorders using many different symptoms. The most typical indications of FTD comprise changes in character and behavior, like unsuitable or compulsive behaviour, euphoria, apathy, decline in personal hygiene, and also a lack of comprehension concerning these changes. Some types of FTD involve speech and language symptoms or movement changes.
A seasoned clinician inside the health care community should perform a diagnostic evaluation. If one is not accessible, the neurology department of the nearest medical university should have the ability to advocate suitable resources or may even provide an experienced diagnostic team proficient in Lewy body dementia.
The individual ‘s functional ability, attention, language, visuospatial skills, memory and executive functioning are assessed. The evaluation will provide a clinical analysis. Currently, a conclusive analysis of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD could be obtained simply from a postmortem autopsy for which arrangements ought to be made ahead of time. Brain autopsies may be offered by some research studies as part of their protocols. Participating in research studies is a great way to help others with Lewy body dementia.
Drugs are just one of the most controversial subjects in coping with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD. A drug that doesn’t work for one person may work for another individual. Become knowledgeable about drug sensitivities and Lewy Body Dementia-LBD treatments.
A physician who is thoroughly knowledgeable about Lewy Body Dementia-LBD should only does prescribing. With new medications and even ‘over-the-counter,’ the patient must be carefully tracked. At the initial indication of an adverse reaction, consult with the patient’s physician. Consider joining the web caregiver support groups to see what others have observed with prescription and over-the-counter medicines.
Risk Factors
Advanced age is regarded to be the greatest risk factor for Lewy body dementia, with onset generally, but not necessarily, between the ages of 50 and 85. Some cases are reported considerably before. It seems to affect somewhat more men than women. An individual ‘s danger may be increased by having a family member. Observational studies indicate that adopting a healthier lifestyle (exercise, mental stimulation, nutrition) might delay age-related dementias.
Clinical Trials
The recruitment of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD patients for participation in clinical trials for studies on Parkinsonian studies, other dementias and Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is now growing.

Lewy Body Dementia Prognosis and Periods
No remedy or definitive treatment for Lewy body dementia has been discovered as yet. It is not impossible, though, for the time period to be anywhere from 2 to 20 years, depending on several factors, such as the individual’s overall health, age and severity of symptoms.
Defining the stages of disease progression for Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is not easy. The symptoms, medicine duration and management of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD fluctuate significantly from person to person. Lewy Body Dementia-LBD has a clinical class that is progressive but vacillating to further complicate the phases appraisal, and one of its defining symptoms is fluctuating degrees of cognitive capacities, alertness and focus. Sudden drop is often brought on by drugs, diseases or alternative compromises to the immune system and normally the man with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD returns upon resolution of the problem to their own baseline. However, for some individuals, it may also be due to the natural course of the ailment.

Lewy Body Dementia Symptoms
Every person with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is distinct and certainly will attest distinct levels of these symptoms. Some will reveal no hints of particular features, particularly in the first stages of the disease. Symptoms may fluctuate as often as moment-to-instant, hour-to-hour or day-to-day. NOTE: Some patients meet the standards for Lewy Body Dementia-LBD though score in the conventional range of some evaluation tools that are cognitive. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), for example, cannot be relied upon to recognize Lewy Body Dementia-LBD from other common syndromes.
Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is a an umbrella term for two connected clinical investigations, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia.
The latest clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) categorizes symptoms into three kinds, listed below. An analysis of Parkinsons’ disease dementia (PDD) demands a well established analysis of Parkinson’s disease that later advances into dementia, along with very similar features to DLB. A somewhat arbirary time cutoff was created to differentiate between PDD and DLB. People whose dementia occurs before or within 1 year of Parkinson’s symptoms are diagnosed with DLB. People who have an existent diagnosis of Parkinson’s for more than a year and after develop dementia are diagnosed with PDD.
Essential feature
Outstanding memory impairment might not be evident in the early periods.
Core attributes
– Persistent complicated visual hallucinations, usually detailed and well formed.
– Impulsive characteristics of parkinsonism.
Implicational features
– REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which may seem years prior to the onset of dementia and parkinsonism.
– Acute sensitivity to neuroleptics happens in up to 50% of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD patients who require them.
– Low dopamine transporter uptake in the mind ‘s basal ganglia as seen on SPECT and PET imaging scans.
Supporting characteristics
– Repeated falls and syncope (fainting).
– Hallucinations of other senses, like hearing or touch.
– Visuospatial abnormalities.
– Other psychiatric disturbances.
A clinical investigation of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD can be possible or likely based on distinct symptom combinations.
A likely Lewy Body Dementia-LBD analysis requires either:
– Dementia plus several core characteristics, or
– Dementia plus one or more suggestive attributes and one core attribute.
A possible Lewy Body Dementia-LBD analysis necessitates:
– Dementia plus one core attribute, or
Symptoms Described
In this section we’ll discuss each of the outward symptoms, starting with the word: dementia. Dementia is a process whereby the individual becomes increasingly confounded. The first indications are usually changes in their way of speaking, for example forgetting words, memory problems, and personality problems. Cognitive symptoms of dementia include issue with learning new abilities poor problem solving and impaired decision making.
Other reasons for dementia should be ruled out first, like alcoholism, overuse of medication, thyroid or metabolic issues. Strokes may also cause dementia. In case these reasons are ruled out then the man can be said to really have a degenerative dementia.
Changes in cognition will likely be noticeable to those who are near the man like their partner, with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD. At times the person will likely be watchful and then suddenly have severe episodes of confusion. These may last days or hours. Because of the fluctuations, it is not uncommon for it to be presumed that the person is “faking”. This change isn’t related to the well known “sundowning” of Alzheimer’s. Quite simply, there’s no certain time of day when confusion may be seen to occur.
Hallucinations are usually, although not necessarily, visual and often tend to be more distinct when the individual is the most confused. They’re not necessarily frightening to the individual. Other modalities of hallucinations contain touch, flavor, smell, and sound.
Parkinsonism or Parkinson’s Disease symptoms, take the kind of developments in gait; the individual may shuffle or walk stiffly. There might also be frequent falls. Body stiffness in legs or the arms, or tremors could also happen.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is often noted in persons with Lewy Body Dementia. During times of REM sleep, the person gesture will go or speak. There might be more conspicuous confusion between the waking up and dream reality when the person awakens. RBD may truly function as the earliest symptom of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD in some patients, and is currently considered an important risk factor. (One recent study found that nearly two thirds of patients diagnosed with RBD grown degenerative brain diseases, including Lewy body dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple system atrophy, after an average of 11 years of receiving an RBD diagnosis. All three diseases are called synucleinopathies, because of the presence of a mis-folded protein in the mind called alpha synuclein.)
Sensitivity to neuroleptic (antipsychotic) drugs is another critical symptom that may happen. These medications can worsen the Parkinsonism and/or decrease the cognition and/or increase the hallucinations. Neuroleptic Malignancy Syndrome, a life-threatening illness, continues to be reported in individuals with Lewy Body Dementia. For this reason, it is very significant the correct identification is created and that healthcare providers are educated about the disorder.
Other Symptoms
Visuospatial troubles, including depth perception, object directional sense, orientation and illusions may happen.
Other psychiatric disturbances may comprise aggression systematized delusions and melancholy. The beginning of aggression in Lewy Body Dementia-LBD may possess a number of causes, including infections (e.g., UTI), medicines, misinterpretation of the surroundings or private interactions, and the natural progression of the disease.

Lewy Body Dementia Treatment Options
Lewy Body Dementia-LBD is a multi-system disease and commonly needs a treatment approach that is comprehensive, meaning a team of physicians from different specialties, who collaborate to offer optimum treatment of each symptom without worsening other Lewy Body Dementia-LBD symptoms. It is essential to not forget that some individuals with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD are incredibly sensitive or may react negatively to certain drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s in addition to particular over-the-counter medications.
Cognitive Symptoms
Medicines called cholinesterase inhibitors are considered the conventional treatment for cognitive symptoms. These drugs were developed to deal with Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, some researchers believe that people with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD may be even more responsive to these kinds of medications than those.
Movement Symptoms
Movement symptoms could be medicated using a Parkinson’s drug called levodopa, but if the symptoms are mild, it might be best not to treat them to be able to avoid potential drug side effects.
Visual Hallucinations
Your doctor may recommend a cautious trial of a newer antipsychotic medication if hallucinations are upsetting or disruptive. (Please see WARNING below. Of note, the dementia medications called cholinesterase inhibitors have also been proven to be effective in treating other psychiatric symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia-LBD and hallucinations. To find out more on this particular topic, read Lewy Body Dementia-LBDA’s publication, “Treatment of Behavioral Symptoms: When to Consider Antipsychotic Drugs”.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)
RBD can be very responsive to treatment, which means that your physician may recommend a drug like melatonin or clonazepam.
Neuroleptic Sensitivity
Acute sensitivity to neuroleptics is not unusual in Lewy Body Dementia-LBD. Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotics, are medications used to treat alternative serious mental disorders or hallucinations. While conventional antipsychotic medications (e.g. haloperidol) are commonly prescribed for individuals with Alzheimer’s with tumultuous behavior, these drugs can impact the brain of an individual with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD differently, sometimes causing severe side effects (see below). That is why, traditional antipsychotic medications like haloperidol ought to be averted. Some newer ‘atypical’ antipsychotic drugs with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD can also be debatable for someone like risperidone. Some Lewy Body Dementia-LBD pros prefer quetiapine. If quetiapine is not born or is unhelpful, clozapine ought to be considered, but requires ongoing blood tests to ensure a rare but serious blood condition does not grow. Hallucinations must be medicated quite conservatively, using the lowest doses possible under careful observation for side effects.

(NMS causes severe temperature, muscle rigidity and breakdown which can result in kidney failure.)

Drugs Side Effects
Discuss together with your doctor about possible unwanted effects. The following drugs can cause motor impairment sedation or confusion:
– Benzodiazepines, tranquilizers like lorazepam and diazepam
– Anticholinergics (antispasmodics), including oxybutynin and glycopyrrolate
– Old antidepressants
– Particular over the counter drugs, including dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine.
– Some drugs, like anticholinergics, amantadine and dopamine agonists, which help alleviate parkinsonian symptoms, might raise confusion, delusions or hallucinations.
NOTE: Make sure you meet up with your anesthesiologist in advance of any surgery to discuss risks and drug sensitivities unique to Lewy Body Dementia-LBD. Folks with Lewy Body Dementia-LBD regularly respond to specific anesthetics and operation with severe states of delirium or confusion and could possess a surprising significant fall in practical skills, which may or may well not be permanent.
Potential alternatives to general anesthesia incorporate a regional or spinal block. These approaches are less likely to result in postoperative confusion. If you’re told to stop taking all drugs prior to operation, check with your doctor to develop an agenda for cautious withdrawal.
Non-Clinical Treatments
Physical therapy options include strengthening, cardiovascular, and flexibility exercises, along with pace training. Doctors may additionally advocate general physical fitness programs including water exercise, or aerobic, strengthening.
Speech therapy could be useful for low voice volume and enunciation that is poor. Speech therapy could also enhance muscular strength and swallowing issues.
Occupational therapy can help promote independence and function and keep abilities. Along with such types of treatment and therapy, music and aroma therapy also can reduce stress and boost mood.
Support groups may be helpful for persons and health professionals to identify practical solutions to day-to-day frustrations, and to get emotional support from others.

“The End”
Planning for the end of life may be a useful task for almost any family. The links below offer some specific suggestions and general guidance for families who confront the burden of a disorder for example Lewy body dementia.

Eight Thing for Protecting The Aging Brain

Protecting The Aging Brain

Brain well-being is the second most important element in keeping a lifestyle that is healthy according to an 2014 AARP study. As people age they could experience a range of cognitive dilemmas from decreased critical thinking to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

1. Cocoa Flavanols: preliminary research reveals a possible connection to memory enhancement as well, and Cocoa flavanols happen to be associated with heart health as well as improved circulation. A study showed cocoa flavanols may enhance the function of a specific portion of the brain known as the dentate gyrus, which is connected with age-associated memory (Brickman, 2014).

Omega-3-fatty-acids2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acids have been demonstrated to lead to good heart health at the moment are playing a part in cognitive well-being also. Foods rich in omega 3s contain flaxseed oil, salmon, and chia seeds.


Phosphatidylserine3. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidic Acid: Two pilot studies showed a combination of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid might help benefit memory, mood, and cognitive function in the aged (Lonza, 2014).


Walnuts on white
Walnuts on white

4. Walnuts: A diet supplemented with walnuts may possess a favorable effect in reducing the threat, delaying the onset, or slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in mice.



5. Citicoline: Clinical trials have demonstrated citicoline nutritional supplements may help maintain normal cognitive function with aging and safeguard the brain from free radical damage.

CHOLINE6. Choline: Choline, which can be associated with liver wellness and women’s health, also helps with the communication systems for the remaining body along with cells inside the mind. Choline may additionally support the mind and help prevent changes that result in cognitive decline and failure. A major source of choline in the diet are eggs.

Magnesium7. Magnesium: Magnesium supplements are often recommended for individuals who experienced serious concussions. Magnesium-rich foods include dark chocolate, soy beans, bananas and avocado.




Blueberries8. Blueberries: Blueberries are known to have antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity only because they boast a higher concentration of anthocyanins, a flavonoid that enhances the health-promoting quality of foods. Average blueberry consumption could offer neurocognitive benefits including increased nerve signaling in the brain centres.

What is TIA?

Transient-Ischemic-AttackWhat is TIA?
These symptoms appear and last less than 24 hours before vanishing. While TIAs usually do not cause irreversible brain damage, they can be a serious warning sign a stroke may occur in the foreseeable future and must not be blown off. Read Full Post…

Ischemic Stroke

Ischemic stroke

Ischemic Stroke

Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel carrying blood to the mind. This causes blood to not reach the brain. High blood pressure is the main risk factor for this type of stroke. Ischemic strokes account for about 87% of all strokes. An ischemic stroke can occur in two ways. Read Full Post…

Hemorrhagic stroke

Hemorrhagic strokeHemorrhagic stroke You can find two types of stroke, hemorrhagic and ischemic. A hemorrhagic stroke is either a brain aneurism blast or a weakened blood vessel leak. Blood spills into or round the mind and creates damaging cells and pressure, swelling and tissue in the brain. You can find two kinds of hemorrhagic stroke called intracerebal and subarachnoid. Read Full Post…

What is a Stroke

ALT TAGWhat exactly is stroke?
Stroke can occur to anyone at any time. It occurs when blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and start to die. Skills controlled by that area of the brain such as memory and muscle control are lost, when brain cells die during a stroke.
How their stroke affects a person depends on just how much the brain is damaged and where the stroke occurs in the brain. For instance, someone who had a small stroke may just have minor problems like temporary weakness of leg or an arm. People who have strokes that were larger could be forever paralyzed on one side of the body or lose their capability to speak. Some people recover completely from strokes, but more than 2/3 of survivors will have some kind of disability. Read Full Post…